Nano Graphite (Lower Friction Lubricant) Any material with particle size less than 100nm (0.1 µm) is defined as Nanoparticle. When material is designed/ reduced into nanoparticles, its reactivity increases. As the particle size is proportional to surface area, particle size reduces, the surface area increases. Due to high surface area to volume ratio, higher percentage of atoms (in nanoparticles) can interact with other matter. Therefore Surface Area (measured in Square meters per gram) is most important unit of measure for a nanolubricant. It means higher the surface area, higher the lubricity. The most commonly used dry lubricants or solid lubricants are graphite which in the solid phase is able to reduce friction between two surfaces sliding against each other without the need for a liquid oil medium. Dry lubricants or solid lubricants acts at temperatures higher than liquid and oil-based lubricants operate. Such materials can operate upto 350°C (662°F) in oxidizing environments and even higher in reducing / non-oxidizing environments. The low-friction characteristics of most dry lubricants are attributed to a layered structure on the molecular level with weak bonding between layers. Such layers are able to slide relative to each other with minimal applied force, thus giving them their low friction properties. Graphite is characterized by two main groups: natural and synthetic. Synthetic graphite is a high temperature sintered product and is characterized by its high purity of carbon (99.5-99.9%). Primary grade synthetic graphite can approach the good lubricity of quality natural graphite. For applications where only a minor lubricity is needed and a more thermally insulating coating is required, then amorphous graphite would be chosen (80% carbon). Graphite Used in air compressors, food industry, railway tracks joints, open gear, ball bearings, machine-shop works, etc. It is also very common for lubricating locks, since a liquid lubricant allows particles to get stuck in the lock worsening the problem. Solid lubricants such as graphite normally demonstrate higher load-carrying capacity of up to 1,000 N/mm2. They can play a role in preventing cold-welding and galling and are capable of providing lifetime lubrication under dirty and dusty conditions. Graphite Nanoparticles 1. Nano size: 40-50nm, 80-100nm, 400-500nm 2. Flake powder with 99.95% purity 3. High temperature, special oxidation resistance 4. Good lubricity & Plasticity 5. Good conductive, thermal conductivity and adhesion Benefits of graphite solids include: Good lubrication in high humidity Protection against fretting corrosion High-temperature stability Low coefficient of friction under high loads Application of Graphite Nanoparticles: 1. Stripping lubricant 2. High-temperature lubricant makings, 3. Corrosion resistant lubricant base 4. Powder metallurgy mold release agent and metal alloy materials, cable in the production of lubricant 5. Production of carbon film resistor, conductive dry mode as well as the preparation of conductive coatings. 6. Rubber, plastics and various composite fillers or quality improver, in order to improve the material of wear-resisting, compression and transmission performance 7. Conductive: conductive coating, electromagnetic shielding, and antistatic coating Loading level of Nanolubricants is a very important parameter. Very low loading level of nanolubricant is sufficient to improve the friction and wear behavior. According to a research a concentration of less than 2 wt% was found as an optimum one for a range of systems. High concentrations can very easily do more damage in terms of wear. Both wear scar diameter and friction coefficient were found to be dependent on the concentration of additives. Studies on different concentration of nanolubricants in various circumstances show an addition of nanoparticles of more than 1% is sufficient to reduce friction. Heat is produced as a consequence of friction, such that lubricants are required to have higher temperature degradation points. Addition of inorganic nanoparticles significantly improves their lifetime and performance, although nanomaterials tend to manifest a sharp decrease in their melting point at around or below 50 nm. Therefore, graphite nanoparticle additives improve the lubrication properties of regular lubricants. Other Nanolubricants Tungsten Disulfide Nanopowder, 90 nm Molybdenum Disulfide Nanopowder, 90 nm Hex-Boron Nitride Nanopowder, 70 nm
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